The notable historian did his schooling, B.A and M.A in History from AMU, Aligarh. Later on, he completed his Ph.D from Oxford University. He remained the professor of History in AMU from 1969-1991, and is currently serving as Professor Emeritus at the Department of History of the AMU. His knowledge on Ancient and Medieval India is commendable. He is also the author of numerous books, including Agrarian System of Mughal India, 1556–1707.